The three-time road cycling world champion held off late-charging Travis McCabe of USA Cycling on Sunday to stretch his record for stage wins in America's premier stage race to 17.
The tournament consisted of two categories in its first edition, and both won by Ooredoo.
Abdullah Al Khater suffered a knee injury on stage three and could not complete the remaining races.
Wiggins set the mark of 54.526km in June 2015 and there have been several failed attempts to break it since.
Speaking after being named Hong Kong's best athlete for a record fifth time, the 31-year-old said she now feels better than ever after bouncing back from some difficult times.
Ineos, owned by Britain's richest man, Jim Ratcliffe, will become the sole owners from May 1 and will continue to fund the current team in full.
The media giant announced in December it would be ending its decade-long association with the team at the end of 2019, with eight Grand Tour victories secured so far.
The annual event was organized by Qatar Cyclists with the support of the Ministry of Culture and Sports and the Qatar Cycling Federation.
The competition will take place at the Ceremonial Court of Qatar Foundation on March 15.
Catlin was part of the US team pursuit squads that captured world titles in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
Qatar’s Tala Abujbara finished second in the women's elite race in a competition which featured a total of 530 participants from 51 countries.
Cyclists will follow a 38.5km route and will need to cross seven sand dunes on their way to the finish line, while runners will cover a distance of 26.7 km crossing four sand dunes in the process.
The 28-year-old -- a two-time Olympic champion and the winner of 11 world track gold medals -- suffered life-changing injuries last June when training at the Cottbus Velodrome.
Cycling's most iconic race will open with a team trial around the Danish capital, known for its pro-cycling policy.
A swathe of elite cyclists have chosen this five-day race, won by Valverde last year, as part of their early-season bid to get back to top form.