His fifth win at the Yas Marina circuit drew him level with Ayrton Senna in claiming a 19th start-to-finish triumph.
Chile is currently in the grip of its worst social crisis in three decades.
Latifi, 24, earned his spot after impressing the team during his stint as reserve driver this year, Williams said.
Experienced Welshman Elfyn Evans and 19-year-old Kalle Rovanpera from Finland have also joined Toyota for 2020.
The event was won by Ampudia brothers Alan and Aaron.
The Honda rider suffered a serious injury to his left shoulder last year and wants to prevent the current problem with his right shoulder from escalating.
The QMMF is also looking to run the opening round of the 2020 FIM Baja World Cup in conjunction with the FIA event.
The FIA has removed the US race at Laguna Seca and Thai round previously held at Chang International Circuit.
Vinales finished third in standings behind Marc Marquez and Andrea Dovizioso.
QMMF President Abdulrahman al Mannai was also present on the occasion.
Saudi Arabia will host the Dakar Rally 2020 from January 5 to 17.
Both cars were damaged and forced to retire in the incident, which came after a Safety Car restart when Vettel 'closed the door' on a challenging Leclerc.
I have already gotten everything organised and I have been able to train with the Qatar Motorsports Academy coaches, says Vinales.
A late collision between Ferrari drivers Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc, who suffered punctures and retired, produced a dramatic and surprising finish to a closely-fought contest.
The Spaniard made a poor start from second place on the grid but steadily picked off his rivals one by one to win at Valencia for just the second time in his career.