Russia's Anastasia Myskina was the only other defending champion to suffer the same fate in the first round in the Open era in 2005.
Given it was only a year ago that she made her comeback from the December 2016 attack, Kvitova is having to pinch herself to believe how well things have gone.
It was the 26-year-old's first final since winning in Hong Kong last October, but she managed to outlast former Australian Open runner-up Cibulkova.
World number one Nadal had been due to face Dolgopolov in the first round as he bids for an 11th Roland Garros crown, but will instead face Italian Bolelli.
Ahead of the start of Roland Garros on Sunday, world number eight Thiem battled back from a set down to claim the 200th tour win of his career.
It was the second WTA title and fifth career final for 29-year-old Larsson, who is ranked 97th in the world.
Switzerland's Bacsinszky is semifinalist in the French capital in 2015 and 2017.
Former world number one Wozniacki will be looking to build on her long-awaited maiden Grand Slam triumph in Melbourne.
The 71-year-old was allowed to leave police custody after being fined 1,000 lei ($251) and his licence was suspended for three months.
The 21-year-old claimed his third Masters title in Madrid earlier this month and also pushed Rafael Nadal all the way in the Italian Open final last weekend.
The top seed is the overwhelming favourite to lift a 17th career major at Roland Garros.
Former world number one Williams, a three-time champion in Paris, is playing a Grand Slam for the first time since winning the Australian Open in 2017.
Rafael Nadal starts his bid for an 11th Roland Garros title against Ukraine's world number 54 Alexander Dolgopolov.
Chung, 21, announced the Roland Garros pullout in a tweet late Wednesday, saying he had been forced to withdraw from a French Open warmup tournament in Lyon due to the injury.
The Swiss star will face Hungary's world number 60 Marton Fucsovics in Thursday's quarterfinals.